grammar.co.id – Artikel hari ini saya akan memberikan kalian Penjelasan Lengkap tentang Reported Speech atau Direct Speech/ Indirect Speech.
Beberapa pertanyaan dasar tentang Reported Speech di bawah ini merupakan perwakilan dari pertanyaan yang ada di benak kalian. 🙂
- Apa itu Reported Speech?
- Apa saja tipe Reported Speech dalam Bahasa Inggris?
- Bagaimana membuat Reported Speech?
Yuk kita simak bersama penjelasan di bawah ini!
Reported Speech – Pengertian, Penjelasan, Jenis, Fungsi, Contoh Kalimat
Pengertian Reported Speech
Dalam Bahasa Indonesia, kita menyebut Reported Speech sebagai kalimat tidak langsung. Reported Speech digunakan untuk melaporkan/menyampaikan kembali perkataan yang telah disampaikan oleh orang lain.
Ada dua cara untuk melaporkan apa yang dikatakan seseorang.
a) Direct Speech (kalimat langsung)
b) Indirect Speech (kalimat tidak langsung)
Mengulangi kata-kata pembicara.
I have lost my key.
- He said, “I have lost my key.” (tense tidak berubah)
Melaporkan apa yang dikatakan seseorang dengan menggunakan Direct Speech sangatlah mudah, karena tidak ada tenses yang berubah pada kalimatnya.
Indirect Speech/ Reported Speech
Memberikan arti yang tepat dari sebuah kalimat tanpa harus menggunakan kata-kata yang tepat dari pembicara. Jika kita ingin menyebutkan dengan siapa pembicara berbicara, kita menggunakan “told” atau menggunakan “said”
I have lost my key.
- She said that she had lost her wallet.
- She told me that she had lost her wallet.
Perubahan tense yang terjadi adalah:
Present Perfect Tense menjadi Past Perfect Tense
have lost menjadi >> had lost
Perubahan Direct Speech ke Indirect Speech
Expressions of Time and Place in Reported Speech
|Direct Speech||Indirect Speech|
|yesterday||the day before (the previous day)|
|Tomorrow/ the next day||The following day|
|The day before yesterday||Two days before / earlier|
|Yesterday morning||The previous morning|
|A year/ month/ week ago||A year before / earlier|
|The day after tomorrow||In two days’ time|
|Next week/month/ year||The following week/ month/ year|
|here||here / there|
|have to / has to||had to|
|ought to / should||ought to / should|
1. Jika kata kerja utama dalam present tense, kita tidak mengubah tense dalam Direct Speech.
- Direct: Jim says, “I don’t like coffee.”
Indirect: Jim says that he doesn’t like coffee.
- Direct: Simon says, “I didn’t do my homework.”
Indirect: Simon says that he didn’t do his homework.
2. Pronoun dan kata sifat posesif biasanya berubah dari orang pertama atau kedua menjadi orang ketiga kecuali ketika pembicara melaporkan kata-katanya sendiri.
- Direct: He said, “You don’t know my language.”
Indirect: He said that I didn’t know his language.
- Direct: I said, “I sold my book.”
Indirect: I said that I had sold my book.
- Direct: She said to me, “Your brother is bothering me.”
Indirect: She told me that my brother was bothering her.
Perubahan keterangan waktu tergantung pada kapan kita mendengar Direct Speech dan kapan menyampaikan Reported Speech.
1. Jika sebuah kalimat diucapkan dan dilaporkan diwaktu/hari yang sama, maka perubahan waktu tidak diperlukan:
Direct : This morning he said, “ I will go to Jakarta today.”
Indirect : This morning he said that he would go to Jakarta today.
2. Perubahan secara logis juga diperlukan jika sebuah kalimat dilaporkan satu/dua hari setelah diucapkan:
Direct : On Sunday Alesha said to Martha: I will start teaching tomorrow.
Indirect: Alesha said that she would start teaching today.
> Jika Martha melaporkan esok harinya (on Monday)
Indirect: Alesha said that she would start teaching yesterday.
> Jika Martha melaporkan dua hari setelahnya (on Tuesday)
Indirect Speech Statements
- Direct: They said, “We love our teacher.”
Indirect: They said that they loved their teacher.
- Direct: Mr Jones said to me, “I educated myself by reading widely.”
Indirect: Mr Jones told me that he had educated himself by reading widely.
- Direct: The teacher said to her, “You have done your homework well.”
Indirect: The teacher told her that she had done her homework well.
- Direct: Mr Woods said, “There are many boats in the harbour.”
Indirect: Mr Woods said that there were many boats in the harbour.
- Direct: Theresa said, “I can’t understand this lesson, mother. Please help me.”
Indirect: Theresa told her mother that she couldn’t understand that lesson and wanted her mother to help her.
- Direct: Tia said to me, “I can’t help you now. I am very tired.”
Indirect: Tia told me that she couldn’t help me then as she was very tired.
- Direct: Carl said, “It’s hot in here. Isn’t the AC on?”
Indirect: Carl said that it was hot in there and asked if the AC was on or not.
- Direct: Mr Jefferson said to Helen, “Didn’t you hear what I said? You must be quiet when I talk.”
Indirect: Mr Jefferson asked Helen if she had heard what he had said or not, and added that she must/ had to be quiet when he talked.
- Direct: David said, “Let’s go to the movie theatre!”
Indirect: David suggested that they should go to the movie theatre.
Common Verbs used with Reported Speech
|Assure + Object
- Direct: You will feel comfortable at this hotel.
Indirect: The travel agent assured us that we would feel comfortable at that hotel.
- Direct: I can’t finish all this work.
Indirect: She protested that she couldn’t finish all that work.
Deny can’t be used in negative.
- Direct: I didn’t steal the money.
Indirect: He denied that he had stolen the money.
Reported Questions adalah pertanyaan yang dilaporkan. Ketika kita melaporkan sebuah pertanyaan, maka laporan tersebut tidak lagi berbentuk pertanyaan, melainkan berubah menjadi pernyataan (statement). Kita lihat contoh berikut:
- Direct speech: “She asked me, “Where do you live?”.
- Reported speech: She asked me where I lived.
Dari contoh diatas, kita melihat bahwa pertanyaan (where do you live?) berubah menjadi pernyataan (where I lived).
Ada dua macam bentuk reported questions, yaitu:
1) pertanyaan dengan question words (5W1H),
2) yes/no questions.
1. Pertanyaan dengan question words
Question words antara lain: what, who, where, when, why, dan how.
|She asked me, “What are you doing?”.||She asked me what I was doing.|
|He asked me, “Who did you meet?”.||He asked me who I had met.|
|They asked him, “Where is your school?”.||They asked him where his school was.|
|“When did you play football?”, she asked them.||She asked them when they had played football.|
|“Why do you come late?”, he asked me.||He asked me why I came late.|
|“How was your holiday?”, she asked me.||She asked me how my holiday had been.|
2. Yes/no questions
Gunakan if/whether (yang berarti apakah) dalam reported speech untuk yes/no questions.
|They asked me, “Are you happy?”.||They asked me if I was happy.|
|He asked me, “Do you like swimming?”.||He asked me if I liked swimming.|
|She asked me, “Did you pass the exam?”.||She asked me whether I had passed the exam.|
|He asked me, “Have you driven a car?”.||He asked me whether I had driven a car.|
Reported Requests adalah permintaan yang dilaporkan. Permintaan ini biasanya dilakukan secara sopan. Untuk reported requests, gunakan ask + to/not to infinitive.
|Direct Speech||Reported Speech|
|“Open the window, please”, she asked me.||She asked me to open the window.|
|He asked me, “Could you make a glass of coffee”.||He asked me to make a glass of coffee.|
|“Please don’t be sad”, they asked me.||They asked me not to be sad.|
|She asked us, “Please don’t do it again”.||She asked us not to do it again.|
Reported Orders adalah perintah yang dilaporkan. Gunakan tell + to/not to infinitive untuk reported orders.
|“Don’t smoke!”, father told me.||Father told me not to smoke.|
|She told me, “close the door!”.||He told me to close the door.|
|“Be quiet”, he told us.||He told us to be quiet.|
|She told me, “Don’t disturb me!”.||She told me not to disturb her.|
Semoga artikel sederhana ini dapat menambah wawasan kalian tentang Reported Speech.